The World Ocean lived a different life during the Archean, Proterozoic and Paleozoic eras. Firstly, he was the ruler of the entire globe, and secondly, his life was very stormy and seething. And here it should be more specific to talk about the locality of the emerging new formations on the globe. 

The earth's crust is torn apart in certain places

In a cursory review of the geological periods of the development of the Earth, it has already been mentioned about individual places of occurrence of certain rocks belonging to certain tectonic zones. In general terms, the impression was that tectonic zones did not show their activity everywhere throughout the entire globe, but in separate places, that is, their activity was concentrated in isolated areas of the earth's crust.

According to the concept of an expanding rigid spherical body, one thing is clear: it collapses. And the first duty is the destruction of strength begins in the weakest and least durable places. The same applies to the principle of destruction of the solid shell of the Earth.

The fact that the increased intra-planetary pressure leads to the beginning of the destruction of the strength of the hardened shell should not be in doubt. There is already sufficient evidence of this. But the variety of processes occurring during tectonic movements does not so easily allow us to grasp the main and previous circumstance of this phenomenon. Say, the globe is simply expanding and the earth's crust is torn, it will not be quite enough for a meaningful concept of the main entity. In this case, the earth's crust could be torn anywhere and anyhow and torn, and remain. But we see a completely different picture: the places of breaks are filled with matter below the general level of the surface. Hence the conclusion: high pressure inside the planet arises due to the addition of matter. The force of the generated pressure exceeds the critical power of the fossilized material, and it breaks apart.

Intra-planetary pressure is extinguished due to the release of excess matter to the surface. The incandescent matter that has risen to many thousand meters in height, having its own specific gravity, also creates its own pressure on the inner part of the planet. The excess of the intra-planetary pressure over the created gravitational pressure leads to the eruption or outpouring of matter, the balancing of the pressure and gravitational forces, stops the movement of the incandescent masses. In this case, we can observe the formation of either volcanic cones or lava fields.

However, the principle of such a mechanism does not yet give us a complete idea of ​​how whole vast areas of the earth's crust could have formed in all their power, consisting of the same or a different composition of rocks, but belonging to a specific geological time.

Processes during the Cenozoic folding 

Take, for example, the Cenozoic zones of folding and destruction. This is one of the last stages of the formation of the earth's crust even at the time of its separation. Until that time, the surface of the globe already had a fairly solid area and a varied structure of the crust itself. In many places it has been disrupted by previous tectonic movements, so there is no hope of relying on its uniform strength everywhere. If a huge amount of matter has already accumulated under the hardened bark, then ruptures could arise in different corners and thereby open the gates for its exit to the surface. However, as we can see, the appearance on the surface of matter in a rather huge amount, is concentrated in one direction in the form of a belt. This suggests, as it were, that the weakest point in the crust was only where it emerged to the surface. Why wouldn't such a large amount of the substance be distributed into separate portions, and in different places came out? Several time-dependent factors appear to have played a role in this regard.

Let's run briefly through all the stages. Precambrian deposits today are crystalline massifs formed from a fiery liquid mass, which cooled down already being on the surface. Granites are a good example of this. The later the eruption of matter from the bowels took place, the lower the temperature state it was, not taking into account the individual and insignificant eruptions in the formation of the crust. The later the stages of tectonic action, the stronger the mountain-forming processes came into play. And finally, the final mountain-forming process was the Cenozoic period.

The substance emerged on the surface in a low-temperature state. The incandescent matter of a viscous state was piled up with huge superstructures of record height. In what form it appeared at the very beginning, in such a way it has survived to the present day.

Of course, had these words caught the eye of a modern geologist with firmly established opinions about the origin of mountain systems or individual mountains, he would in no way agree with this and even offended b. Without concealing, we can say openly that in no case and under any circumstances and evidence should one agree with the established opinions: they are fundamentally wrong and contradictory. No crumbling of the earth's crust occurred and no mountain systems, as a result, did not arise. And the fact that mountain ranges are really crumpled folds is impeccable, but the mechanism of their formation is not at all what it is customary to think about.

If the mechanism of mountain-forming processes were known to modern science, views on other natural phenomena and their interpretation would also change in many respects. The visibility of rock samples from small to the largest formations irreproachably states that they were crushed at one time. And there is no better evidence of this as visualization. But how, when and under what circumstances this variegated crumpling into an accordion took place remains a mystery for science. The beginning of the existing explanation is correct - horizontal compression. And just that.

The separation of the continents began not earlier than the Cenozoic

A deeper question will probably be interesting: what happened to the substance of intra-planetary birth after the Paleozoic era, when it was no longer able to erupt to the surface?

This is where the confusion probably begins.

Some of the supporters of the expansion of the Earth argue that the separation of continents originates after the Paleozoic. Alpine folding belongs to the Cenozoic era, to the most recent, that is, modern. According to Kirillov's crustal model, Cenozoic zones already existed.

Where is the logical connection? Here in science something is confused, something is out of place.

According to our own considerations and the order of the stages of geological development and their characteristic features, the Cenozoic folding zones we call could not arise after the separation of a single continent into separate parts began.

Here one of two things: either the Cenozoic folding was made very young, or the beginning of the divergence of the continents was carried far in the old days.

Cenozoic folding already existed by the time the continents began to separate. An example has already been given on the Kirillov cow model, as if referring to it. But here there is also a consideration of the impossibility of the appearance of Cenozoic folding after the rupture of a single continent into separate parts. In a few words about them, this is an analysis of the phased development of the planetary crust in accordance with the temperature state of matter as a building material, which has reached the maximum mobility and the state of matter is below the Mohorovichich border, that is, the region of the upper mantle.

And what happens? The thought is inclined to the fact that the expansion of the continents began much later than in the Paleozoic - somewhere in the Cenozoic in the Tertiary period, when the organic world flourished on Earth and man was already its inhabitant. At present, scientists are surprised by the related distribution of species of fauna and flora at rather distant distances. It turns out that this question is resolved if we consider that once the pieces of land were reunited, and then dispersed. However, even in this issue, not everything becomes clear. The rather huge distances that have arisen between the torn parts of the continents do not fit into such a short time.

The result is a very large temporal-spatial contrast. If the development of the continental crust took place for such a long time - from the Archean era to the Cenozoic, then the oceanic type very, very quickly - only during one last era, and then, probably, not completely.

The fact that the Cenozoic zones, such as the Andes and the Cordillera, arose when man was on Earth, is evidenced by material evidence. (Y. Alirina. A fishing hut on the top of a mountain at 5000 m, a pier near Lake Tanganna at an altitude of 4500 m above the level of the modern ocean, etc.)

According to all data, man exists on Earth for 1 million years. Now some people have spoken about the existence of man for about 2 million years. May be. But how does the fact that human remains were found in a seam of coal in Italy fit into the consciousness of the scientific world? If this fact is reliable, then it turns out that man appeared on the planet even earlier, somewhere in the Paleozoic. But by this time hundreds of millions of years are counted. Could it be? And no, according to our ideas about the evolutionary development of man in general, and yes, according to the laws of dialectics of nature. So the time of existence of organic life on the planet cannot always be consistent with its events of geological development.

In a word, clarification of the incomprehensibility that has arisen is not a matter of one mind. And in general, with such a meager awareness, one should not even enter into searches. There are others for this. Practical for some, theoretical for others.

Translated from Про формування планети в завершальних етапах

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